Posts Tagged ‘Fractional reserve banking’

An alternative and highly informative walking tour. Either go by yourself or gather a few friends and enjoy your outing…you may learn a few things you might not have previously known about this fascinating City

Stop 1: Goldsmith’s Hall

Begin here on Gresham Street

Gresham Street/Foster Lane EC2V 6BN

Where more appropriate a place to start? The place of the people from whom our paper money, fractional reserve hegemony, was initiated – The Goldsmiths.

Every civilisation and nation had their own kind, but here we focus on those glodsmilths that form part of British and particulary London history

One of the many City Livery Companies, you could think of them as old fashioned trade unions and regulators of specialist trade and crafts, formed in a medieval era when the foundations of British society were taking root. The Goldsmiths were one of the first, known as the Twelve Great Livery Companies, specialising in the craft of making all manner of wares from the valuable metals of Gold and Silver. However, this craft later gave way to the regulation of coinage itself, ensuring everything in circulation which was fiat, met the required weight and composition of metals according to the government of the day. Today this tradition of regulating the weights and measures of precious metals continues in The Trial of the Phyinx, a once a year ceremony or event where these metrics are agreed.

The Goldsmiths involvement in paper money is an oft-repeated tale and one heard in a number of regions across the world; those with physical gold would deposit their assets with Goldsmiths for safe keeping. A receipt for this would be issued. Since the amount of customers wanting to retrieve their gold was far less frequent than those depositing the metals, the Goldsmiths saw an opportunity to make extra revenues in lending out, for a fee, a certain amount of the gold stored with them in the absence of immediate demand from depositors to withdraw their holdings. This lending upon which interest was charged and it became the basis of modern fractional reserve banking itself. As long as all depositors did not require their holdings back at once, the Goldsmith could effectively create receipts/money from nothing…this is how banking works to this day

On a visit to an exhibition at this venue, I took the opportunity to capture the following display item proving that this function was indeed performed by this guild in this country; (will be inserted here in due course)

Stop 2: Guildhall

Continue eastwards along Gresham Street, en route towards the Bank of England, not far along this route, you will pass by our next stop on your left, the Guildhall

Gresham Street, EC2V 7HH

Principally home to the London local authority of these parts, The City of London Corporation, this city within a city is administered from these buildings, however it is much more then just that. An authority associated with running the affairs of the City has been housed in this place for more than 800 years. Considered to be one of the oldest ‘elected’ offices in the world, this authority is considered as a state within a state due to the fact that some of the ancient laws it established continue to govern this locality over and above the laws of the land that apply to all other parts of the U.K. and indeed London.

An authoriy with its own Police force (The City of London Police have jurisdictional power here as opposed to the Metropolitan Police that patrol the rest of London) and it’s own Courts of Law, and a visible border (Note the checkpoints and distinctive bollards that appear at all the boundary points of the City, although one must reference the checkpoints were apparantly brought in as a result of a large IRA bomb which struck on Bishopsgate near Tower 42)

The history of the Lord Mayor, the head of this city state, is also worth covering.

Economic commentator Richard Weiner goes further to state that the Queen does not have direct authority over this borough and it is true that whenever she wishes to visit this area it is a custom, or rather the law, that she must be met at St Paul’s by the Lord Mayor of London, being the ‘head’ of this state. Further still, these parts are not a democracy by the people, very few people actually reside in the City, however the voting power is given to anyone who works in the City for a business that operates in this area. Werner follows this by saying that the City, being an independent state therefore is not actually a direct part of the U.K, is not even a democracy and also not part of the EU by extension.

One aspect of this institution that somewhat fascinates me is the association with the mythical characters of Gog and Magog. There is a loaded meaning behind this which I will only slightly unpack here.

The folklore behind Gog and Magog in Britain relates to two giants who came to these shores and settled in the City of London as the guardians and protectors of this district.

Contrast this to the mentioning of Gog and Magog in the Quran, not to two giants but of two tribes or peoples, known for their mischief. A wall of melted iron was built by Dhul-Qarnain to keep these tribes away from other peoples but it was said that one day this wall would be breached and these tribes would be unleashed, realising an end of times senario. A similar theme is presenting in Jewish and Christian traditions however differeneces in the narrative can be observed, although generally these characters are discussed in a negative sense. Its a remarkable association, and I wonder what the underlying connections actually point to….

Stop 3: Bank of England

Continue along Gresham Street, eastwards towards the Bank of England, as you approach walk up Princes Street on your right, stop at the main Bank junction. There is a pedestrianised island at the centre with the Royal Exchange facing you in front

Threadneedle St, EC2R 8AH

Britiain’s central bank, one of the oldest in the world at over 300 years old, formed in 1694. Like many central banks, this began as a private corporation, in order to provide the King at the time with funds to rebuild its Navy and fight a war with France, underscoring the constant link between money/debt and war/violence.

However it was only in 1946 when this institution was nationalised, and now it is an arm of the government, although ‘independent’ from direct government control (the government used to set interest rates themselves up to 1997) although almost controlled by proxy; the Chancellor assigns the Governor, perhaps the most powerful unelected position in this country. A number of other central banks throughout the world may still be in private hands however, the US Federal Reserve being a known example, so too perhaps (I haven’t been able to verify yet) is the so called, central bank of central banks, the Bank for International Settlements

The Bank functions not only as the governments official banker but as the regulator of the UK financial services industry too. It stored the many nations’ gold reserves, issues all banknotes and creates money for the economy through debt, also known as Quantitive Easing. On a side note however, it was the Goldsmiths, which we visited first that issued the first form of bank notes, or promisory notes in this country. These were the receipts to redeem the gold stored with them.

It should be appreciated though that commercial banks also have the ability to in turn create further money which is also pumped into the economy through their debt and loans issued to industry and the public, therefore it is a fallacy that only the central bank creates money in the economy…although one which is not a hidden fact, explore the BoE’s own website for confirmation of fractional reserve banking and how money is created. The history of this blog gives plenty of further evidence of this from various sources.

Further information on the bank can be retrived from these interesting websites;

British History Online

Intriguing History

Furthermore, along the side of the Bank on Bartholomew Lane is the Bank of England Museum, well worth a quick visit to see how they wish to explain the mainstream version of the Banks function

Stop 4: Coffee House

Continue eastwards only for a few yards until you come to St Michael’s Alley on the opposite side of the road, venture down this alleyway and stop outside the Jamaica Wine House

St Michael’s Alley, Cornhill, EC3V 9DS

This place is currently named Jamaica Wine House, and was the very first coffee house established in this city in order to indulge in a drink brought over from Turkey and also popular in the Middle East – Coffee!

The origins of two of the most common financial institutions began in old coffee houses in the City of London; Stock Exchanges and Insurance markets. This location is very close to where the London Stock Exchange used to be based, initially in the Royal Exchange building for most of its time, and later in the 20th Century on what is now 125 Old Broad Street, and also not far from where the modern Lloyds of London market and the City’s Insurance quarter is, along Leadenhall Street. A number of other such institutions can also be traced back to these establishments where people from various walks would meet for specific purposes and discuss pertinent affairs.

Further historical connotations can be deduced from its name which relates to British colonies in the West Indies, merchants involved in the sugar plantations would meet here to discuss business, and also to the slave trade where those opposed to abolishing slavery would also meet here to plot ways to disrupt the abolition movement.

This area is also a great example of another well known aspect of this City, the small winding alleys which help you get from A to B avoiding the heavily congested main pathways. An historical feature well preserved amongst the wide and open space demands of modern cities

Stop 5: Lombard Street

Continue straight/south along St Michael’s Alley, and then further along George Yard until you reach Lombard Street

Lombard Street, EC3V 9BS

Historically the home for London’s money lenders, named after ancient financiers from the continent, in Italy, replaced the original Jewish goldsmiths here in the City and where many British banks used to locate, Barclays head quarters being the stand out designed building here.

This history of the mixing of different civilisations and peoples involved in finance also points to the global nature of this practise and also the long legacy it has had throughout the ages, London being only one the latest stops along its journey

A number of distinctive signage can be seen along this street, representing many old firms who would use these as a symbol of their enterprise to help the many who couldn’t read nor write identify the company.

Stop 6: ‘Skyscraper Alley’

From Lombard Street, continue eastwards to the end of the road, then left onto Gracechurch Street, until you reach the junction with Leadenhall Street on your right, find an appropriate place to stop at the start of Leadenhall Street.

Leadenhall Street, EC3V 4QT

Stopping just off Bishopsgate/Gracechurch Street, from this road you can currently view and locate the tallest and largest buildings constructed in the U.K., so much so that I like to call it ‘London’s Skyscraper Alley’…although many will know that what passes as a skyscrapper in London, would be scoffed at elsewhere.

Notice first the 1980s steel structure that is Tower 42, formerly the NatWest Tower, the first modern skyscraper of its kind in the U.K. For many years it took centre stage in the sky with no rivals to see until further east the regeneration of the old trading docks gave rise to four 200m plus office blocks mainly commissioned for the largest U.K. and US banks (Barclays, HSBC, Citi Group and the former Lehman Brothers).

Then near the start of this century, the shape of things changed, in my opinion refreshingly so, with the rise of the Gherkin, or 30 St Mary’s Axe, and so too the tradition of nicknaming all the big projects

With so much money flowing into international real estate, especially into London due to Q/E, low interest rates and the search for higher yields, the capital skyline started taking its current form with the big name projects such as The Shard (Western Europe’s highest roof), The Cheesgrater (the Leadenhall Building), the Walkie Talkie (20 Fenchurch Street) together with the under construction projects of 22 Bishopsgate, the recently opened Scalpel and the plenty of potential future projects, the appetite and financing for high rise office space is not abating at the time of writing. On a side note, London bridge is a good viewing point for both the City’s skyscrapers and those of the docklands, consisting of the Canary Wharf developments which match many of the heights of these City towers.

Stop 7: Insurance Quarter

Walk eastwards along Leadenhall Street for a few yards until you come to face Lloyds of London on your right

1 Lime St, EC3M 7HA

This stop is in front of the Lloyds of London building. This is a 300 year old institution which started life in one of the London’s Coffee houses on Lombard Street, and is a market place in itself – where companies come together to buy/sell insurance, or manage specialist risk.

My interest in this institution for this walk is the connection and facilitation that the insurance trade had with trans-atlantic slavery. Indeed there is plenty of evidence that the slavery traded across the British Empire helped finance the fortunes not only of this wealthy city but of the nation itself, through functions such as the many aspects of shipping, from building to maintaining ports, insuring slave voyages and cargo, banks financing expeditions and slave merchants, through to the establishment of colonised markets for the goods that slaves produced and the industrial revolution that was fired up by these new markets. This gives thought to the manner in which the developed world became so rich in the first place…at the expense of the third world.

Another fascinating connection to this very site, is the previous building that used to occupy this location – the head quarters of the East India Company…the colonial enterprise used to invade India by stealth

Note the Iraq Flag over 7-10 Leadenhall Street, the Iraqi Commercial Attache, with the arabic writing, ‘God is Great’…slight irony given its location

Stop 8: ‘Gilt of Cain’ Slave sculpture

Continue on Leadenhall Street until you reach Lime Street on your right, with ‘The Scalpal’ on the other side of the road, walk along Lime Street until you reach Fenchurch Avenue, follow this road to your left. Shortly afterwards, you will come to Fen Court, a little side street. Stop once you reach the small garden area and the above monument.

Fen Court Garden, EC3M 5BN

On the site of a former church, burnt down in the Great Fire, however remains of its churchyard are still apparent, lies Fen Court. In 2008, a sculpture dedicated to the abolition of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was unveiled here.

Placed not too far from the St Mary Woolnoth church where so called abolitionist William Wilberforce heard anti slave preaching, this sculpture represents on one hand a place for a slave auction, on the other a congregation listening to a preacher. This merging of colonial past (note the columns represent stems of sugar canes – an association to the sugar trade, one of the more profitable plantations and one which was a big contributor to the City’s commercial success) with christian practice can also be seen in the wording printed across the sculptures, a poem written for this art work which fuses biblical references of the story of Cain to more modern terms connected to the City’s trading practices.

It is another fascinating association, connecting as it does to religion, much like the statues of Gog and Magog in Guildhall. Some interpreters see Cain as representing evil, greed and violence, elements which are all to pertinent to Europe’s colonial past. I am left wondering whether this commemorates this dark past as an admission of guilt, or subliminally even celebrates it, judge for yourselves

Stop 9: East India Arms

From Fen Court, turn left onto Fenchurch Street. Keep walking east until you reach the above pub on your right.

67 Fenchurch St, EC3M 4BR

An old pub bearing the name of an old joint stock company, a forerunner to the type of limited liability corporations of today. it is worthy of this tour to dwell on the insidious nature of this state apparatus, a back door coloniser, by royal charter, The East India Company. This article from 2015 helps place the enterprise into the corporate context, A plaque outside of the pub gives a brief summary of the corporation, almost paying homage to it. Some sources point to this pub having been located next to a row of buildings which used to house merchants that had trade in the East or with the the East India Company, however there was no direct link between this pub and the corporation, although it still stands as a mark of the colonial legacy

Final Stop: The (Former) Royal Mint

After passing The East India Arms, continue along Fenchurch Street and then turn right along Lloyds Avenue. At the end of this road continue forward and walk onto Coopers Row. Continue south until this street becomes Trinity Square, pass Tower Hill underground station on your left and turn left along the station and pass Tower Hill Garden on your right. Once at the end of the garden area, continue right along the main road of Minories and then Tower Hill. Tower Bridge will be in front of you, passing the Tower of London on your right. Walk forward and come to a safe stopping point near the above Royal Mint Court


This tour started with the Goldsmiths, responsible for paper money and fractional reserve banking, and it now concludes with the institution which is responsible for producing/minting this currency in the form of coinage and minting bullion, interestingly, bank notes are privately produced.

Read more on the history of this institution here,

The Mint was relocated to Cardiff a number of decades ago, and this site has now been bought and is undergoing redevelopment.

I hope you have had an insightful journey and discovered a number of previously unknown facts and sights. London is a gem for history and stories, be they controversial or otherwise, try forgoing the tube, bus or even an uber, and walk to your destination, it will be worth the effort and I hope you uncover your own hidden gems….

For anyone not familiar with the work of Ann Pettifor – one of the few to correctly call the coming of the financial crisis a number of years prior to it arriving, and one of the main proponents of the Jubilee 2000 campaign which cancelled a portion of third world debt – please search for her various articles, lectures and opinions online.

Associated with Keynesian economics and the Labour party, her views may be dismissed by some, however upon closer inspection, I was interested in her view on the creation of money, and what this meant for resolving the debt and economic problems facing the developing world.

She is principally part of the PRIME think tank/research group, which has a number of papers on its site proving an alternative voice on economic issues

The above lecture at the LSE discusses her latest book, ‘The Production of Money: How to Break the Power of Bankers’, and gives an insight into her theories.

What I wish to highlight, are the following;

  • The issue of commodity money, and how scarce resources should not be used as a basis of any monetary system
  • The recognition that a fiat monetary system, can and should be used for the benefit of the population – outside the control of private banks, but in the knowledge that an entirely man-made system should be used to achieve a level of prosperity in all societies
  • There are certainly many socialist aspects to these beliefs, such as exerting capital controls and spending money into existence in terms of health, education and social expenditure thus increasing national debt, however interest ideally should not be necessary when such a system is implemented
  • There are some similarities with what Positive Money are advocating, but it seems there are specific differences, as this discussion points out…



This past week, the London School of Economics, hosted an event on the Nature of Money, see details here.

One of the speakers was Dr Waltraud Schelkle, part of the LSE, an Associate Professor of Political Economy.

Please play the audio from time stamp 52.05 for a question put to the panel regarding the fraudulent aspects of the system. Dr Schelkle answers that she disagrees that the system is indeed based on deceit and she points to the ‘success’ of the Capitalist nations….

I think Susan Steed, another panellist, does an excellent job of refuting her shallow argument, without mentioning by name what I think is most key when understanding how the rich became rich…the Transatlantic Slave Trade…

I would also point the Dr to the numerous posts examining this on this blog, and will make an effort to highlight other key counterarguments in future

Fortuitously, this week I received a post from MoneyWeek entitled…”A 92bn Scam

It went on to state;

The $92 billion was income generated on the Federal Reserve’s portfolio of US government bonds. It bought vast numbers of these bonds by expanding its balance sheet and printing money. The government then paid interest on those bonds. That interest is the Federal Reserve’s return. That return is then passed back to the government as an important source of income.

To be clear, this is the state creating money from nothing… to lend to itself… to then pay interest on… and then use that interest as another source of revenue. That’s Deep State financial policy.

Misrepresenting transactions, making it seem as though the government is solvent when it is using a glorified Ponzi scheme…..that’s Fraud in my book.

Consider the following from MoneyWeek’s Bill Bonner;

…there is a financial institution of uncertain integrity, with an electronic balance sheet of uncertain accuracy, listing alleged financial claims and contracts of uncertain quality – and that you are one of the many thousands of entries on the debit side, with a claim to a certain number of dollars, which the institution may or may not have… each of uncertain value.

…Today, banks no longer have “money”. They have credits and debits. Your deposit is your bank’s liability and your asset. But look at the balance sheet. You don’t know how many of the claims on the left are right… or whether, when the other creditors get finished with it, any of the assets shown on the right are left.

….and to think some people have an issue with me believing in an unseen God !?


The extent of discussion around so called Helicopter Money is symptomatic of the wider issue that central bankers are truly at a loss around the issue of secular stagnation and the obsession to inject growth however possible.

Whilst the idea of money printing or quantitative easing is a reality for developed nations, no longer the preserve of failed states (or do we admit the first world is indeed a failed state?), the notion of money being made freely available to the pubic is still more fiction than fact.

However this article is worth a read, as it sets out how such a move could work and the considerations needed. I find it revealing in the workings of some aspects of monetary policy, however it does omit the amount of money creation performed by commercial banks, something which needs to be acknowledged on a wider scale

City AM – Helicopter Money




Freedom is indeed a misunderstood construct

Freedom is in the hands of the beholder (who has the power)

Consider this from MoneyWeek, regarding the upcoming meeting of the Federal Reserve to decide the direction of interest rates. Other parts of the ‘Free World’ also experience similar detailed focus of their communications…

And, perhaps more to the point, the Fed is meeting tonight, and everyone is worried that it’s getting closer to raising interest rates. It’s not that rates will rise tonight. It’s just that Wall Street expects the Fed will remove the word “patient” from its communication.

By the mysterious osmosis through which markets absorb information, that apparently means that the Fed will probably raise rates in June (September at the latest).

As I’ve said countless times in the past, it’s somewhat pathetic that the words of one individual sitting in a meeting room somewhere in the US can upset our ostensibly free markets more than any amount of economic data.

But there you go.



Ever wondered what it would be like if the issue of commercial banks creating money were to be discussed in the corridors of the highest power in the land? Well here you are…not a great turnout it seems.

If you want to appease the masses, listen to them. But not too much.

Positive Money have been campaigning to raise awareness of this issue with MPs across the country, here is a response I received from a local MP, with the Positive Money email question template included at the bottom. Visit the positive money site for full results of all the responses gathered to see how much our ‘leaders’ are aware of this long running debate.

MP Letter

Still struggling to undertand the nature of the global operating monetary system, what it is and how it works?

View this explanation using easy to understand graphics, part 4 of Mike Maloney’s  Hidden Secrets of Money, a series exploring these issues and their history;

View the whole series here;

Your true wealth is your time and freedom

Wealth is never destroyed, it is only transferred….




J Rickards

Expert Jim Rickards discusses his forecast for the future of the debt based monetary system and the warning signs for the dominant position of the US Dollar in today’s state of geo politics….

Also read his blog regarding the few moves left for the Fed and it management of the US fiscal policy



Commodity money is not the only alternative to the fiat based system. Where currently the banks have the greatest control over the supply of money, one suggestion put forward by the Positive Money group is to take this power away from them and rest it with an independent accountable committee.

Read their proposal here, written in easy to understand terms. A more technical guide also exists for more advanced readers. View the site below;

The Positive Money Alternative

Whilst it is worthwhile considering all work put forward in attempting to end this unjust system, and where no solution should seek to create a utopian world, the obvious problems with this proposal are as follows;

  • Fiat (non-commodity) money will still exist, albeit in a ‘controlled’ and debt-free form
  • How independent can any committee be, and the risk of manipulation will still be present from the government and parties close to the commercial banks.

However, some of the advantages are to be welcome, and work such as this greatly helps the discourse when it comes to theorising about an answer to the status quo.